About this time last year, I prepared a few statistics illustrating Wikipedia’s gender gap in classics and how it has changed, largely due to the efforts of the Women’s Classical Committee. Over 2019, they have continued their excellent work documenting female classicists (broadly construed) through Wikipedia. This year alone they have created or improved 186 biographies. They have transformed their area on Wikipedia and inspired other groups to get involved. They even had a session at the Leeds International Medieval Congress (a Late Antiquity link of course).
#MedievalWiki Kate Cook @KatExe delivering expert training on editing medieval women and women historians into English-language Wikipedia at this year’s IMC #IMC2019 #WCCWiki
Taken by @IMC_Leeds https://t.co/IcoTFk0oW5 pic.twitter.com/wsblswFaM8— Dr Victoria Leonard (@tigerlilyrocks) July 18, 2019
A year is a long time online, so it pays to revisit the statistics and see how far we have travelling in 12 months. This comes with the caveat that the number of biographies is one aspect of Wikipedia’s gender imbalance. By design, Wikipedia emulates the real world – all information needs to be drawn from reliable sources so people who are more likely to have coverage are more likely to have Wikipedia articles. Biographies are one way in which the is manifested on Wikipedia, and there are other aspects which are harder to quantify especially on a large scale. As of writing, the article on the history of archaeology mentions 51 men and 0 women. Alice White is the one who spotted that particular imbalance. Amongst the sources used as references, there are 18 men and four women. An improvement on 51-0 but still poor. And the gender imbalance can also be found in how pages are written, so a Wikipedia biography of a woman may mention her family and husband before her career.
Last year I tested two approaches to work out how many biographies of classicists there are on Wikipedia: counting articles in categories and querying Wikidata. The latter has the benefit of including more information from other sources, so you can draw on information in the German Wikipedia for example. As such I’ll be focusing on the latter.
As a reminder, Wikidata is an open source database, and for the purpose of this blog post is especially used because it contains information on things in Wikipedia and structures it in a way which can be queried. One of the interesting things is that a person doesn’t need a Wikipedia page to have a Wikidata entry. At some point in the not-to-distant future, everyone who has written a piece in the Journal of Roman Studies could have a Wikidata entry containing information about them and their works. That’s part of a larger project called WikiCite which aims to build an open source bibliography. For us, that means it’s handy because we can look beyond Wikipedia.
The figures that follow are based on information from 2 December 2019 unless stated otherwise. Our starting numbers for entries on classicists in Wikidata are:
Therefore, in Wikidata 12.9% of people with the occupation of classicists (or a subclass of classicist) are women. This shifts when we look at the number of articles on the English Wikipedia. Let’s also throw in the German and French Wikipedias since they also have a large number of articles.
|Language Wikipedia||Total number of articles||Male||Female|
|English||2,359||1,975 (83.7%)||384 (16.3%)|
|German||3,295||2,973 (90.2%)||322 (9.8%)|
|French||977||885 (90.6%)||92 (9.4%)|
For context, there are 1,674,919 biographies on the English Wikipedia and 18.14% are about women. Classics is still languishing behind the average for English Wikipedia, but lets refresh our memory of last year’s numbers.
|Language Wikipedia||Total number of articles||Male||Female|
|English (14 Dec 2018)||2,088||1,820 (87.2%)||268 (12.8%)|
|German (3 Dec 2018)||2,851||2,587 (90.7%)||264 (9.3%)|
|French (3 Dec 2018)||791||725 (91.7%)||66 (8.3%)|
Though I didn’t include French and German in last year’s stats they’re retrievable through the Denelezh gender gap analysis tool. A shift of three-and-half percentage points in English represents a huge amount of work, especially as while the WCC are proactively creating biographies and linking to them throughout Wikipedia, other Wikipedia editors are creating new articles which by the nature of how Wikipedia has grown will tend to be about men. This really stands out when comparing changes over the last year in the English Wikipedia with French and German.
|Language Wikipedia||Articles created between
14 Dec 2018 and 2 Dec 2019
|English||271||155 (57.2%)||116 (42.8%)|
|German||444||386 (86.9%)||58 (13.1%)|
|French||186||160 (86.0%)||26 (14.0%)|
Though more articles overall were created in the German Wikipedia, less than half of the number of biographies on women were created compared to the English Wikipedia. In proportional terms, that means only 13% of new biographies of classicists on the German Wikipedia were about women. That was an improvement on the baseline for 3 December 2018, but only by half a percentage point.
As I’m an archaeologist (and because someone asked me to) last year I also threw out some numbers about classical archaeologists. That particular profession isn’t in the Denelezh tool, so we’re left with running Wikidata query and making a note of the results.
|Language Wikipedia||Total articles||Male||Female|
|English, 14 Dec 2018||193||156 (80.8%)||37 (19.2%)|
|English, 6 Dec 2019||292||207 (70.9%)||85 (29.1%)|
So for new articles created over the past year, there’s been a roughly fifty-fifty split between male and female biographies in this field (48:51). Part of this will represent better information in Wikidata as well as a growing number of articles. For example, Wikidata seems to have a reasonably good idea of how many archaeologists there are in its database, but specialisms aren’t as well covered. In part that’s because there are two ways to note a specialism: noting it as a profession or a field of work. The result is occasionally fragmented data. Therefore, the English Wikipedia has four(!) articles on people whose profession is medieval archaeology (1 male, 3 female) and 34 on people whose field of work is medieval archaeology (22 male, 12 female).
The bottom line
Back in 2016, when the WCC started working on Wikipedia articles, I estimated that 7% of biographies of classicists on the English Wikipedia were about women. Without the WCC’s intervention, it is likely that trend would have continued albeit with the proportion increasing roughly in line with the rest of Wikipedia.